Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education

Addressing Student Diversity in Science Classroom: Exploring Topic-Specific Personal Pedagogical Content Knowledge of High School Teachers

Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2020, pp. 141-163
OPEN ACCESS VIEWS: 162 DOWNLOADS: 188 Publication date: 15 Sep 2020
The student diversity in today’s science classrooms presents challenges as well as learning opportunities  for students and teachers. This research examines topic-specific personal pedagogical content knowledge (pPCK) of high school teachers as it relates to addressing student diversity in their science classrooms. A narrative inquiry  approach was adopted to study four science teachers’ experiences of teaching science, c onsidering teachers’ pPCK as an accumulation of experience. Narrative data was collected through interview conversations with these teachers about their experiences of conceptualizing and teaching force and motion topics to  diverse groups of students in their science classrooms. The focus of these conversations was the day-to-day practice of participant teachers about making force and motion topics accessible to diverse learners. Using pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) as a conceptual framework, the narrative data  were analyzed to explore how these teachers negotiated their content knowledge and knowledge of student diversity in shaping their professional knowledge of science teaching. The findings revealed that topic-specific pPCK of partcipant teachers was sourced in student diversity present in their science classroom, and its development underpins various processes to connect different types of knowledge. This research suggests considering teachers’ knowledge of student diversity and how this impacts their planning and  teaching of specific science content as an aspect of their topic-sepcific pPCK. Implications for science teacher education are included.
Pedagogical content knowledge, Personal pedagogical content knowledge, Student diversity, Science teacher knowledge, Topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge.
Azam, S. (2020). Addressing Student Diversity in Science Classroom: Exploring Topic-Specific Personal Pedagogical Content Knowledge of High School Teachers. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 3(3), 141-163.
  1. Abell, S. K. (2007). Research on science teacher knowledge. In S. K. Abell & N. G. Lederman (Eds.). Handbook of Research on Science Education (pp. 1105-1149). Routledge.
  2. Aikenhead, G. S. (1996). Science education: Border crossing into the subculture of science. Studies in Science
  3. Education, 27(1), 1–52.
  4. Alonzo, A. C., & Kim, J. (2016). Declarative and dynamic pedagogical content knowledge as elicited through: Two video-based interview methods. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53(8), 1259-1286.
  5. Azam, S. (2015). Stories of teaching force and motion: A narrative inquiry into pedagogical content knowledge of science teachers (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. http://doi:10.11575/PRISM/27884
  6. Azam, S. (2018). Physics for teaching high school physics: Views of prospective physics teachers and teacher educators about undergraduate physics study. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 7(2), 147-163.
  7. Azam, S. (2019). Distinguishing topic-specific professional knowledge from topic-specific PCK: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 14(5), 281-296.
  8. Azam, S. (in Press). Locating personal pedagogical content knowledge of science teachers within stories of teaching force and motion. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education.
  9. Avramidis, E., & Norwich, B. (2002). Teachers' attitudes towards integration / inclusion: A review of the literature.
  10. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17(2), 129-147. 10.1080/08856250210129056
  11. Ball, D. L. (1988). Knowledge and reasoning in mathematical pedagogy: Examining what prospective teachers bring to teacher education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Michigan State University, East Lansing.
  12. Banks, J. A. (1993). Multicultural education: Developments, dimensions, and challenges. The Phi Delta Kappan, 75
  13. (1), 22-28.
  14. Brown, S., & McIntyre, D. (1986). An investigation of teachers’ professional craft knowledge. In D. McIntyre (Ed.), Teachers’ professional craft knowledge: Stirling Educational Monographs, No 16: University of Stirling.
  15. Carlson, J., & Daehler, K. R. (2019). The refined consensus model of pedagogical content knowledge in science education. In A. Hume, R. Cooper & A. Borowski (Eds.), Repositioning pedagogical content knowledge in teachers’ knowledge for teaching science (pp. 77–92). Springer.
  16. Carter, K. (1990). Teachers’ knowledge and learning to teach. In W. R. Houston & M. H. J. Sikula (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 291–310). Macmillan.
  18. Chou, V., & Sakash, k. (2007). Troubling diversity. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Fiemam-Nemser, J. McIntyre, & K.
  19. Demers (Eds.). Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring issues in changing context. Erlbaum.
  20. Cochran-Smith, M. (1995). Color blindness and basket making are not the answers: Confronting the dilemmas of race, culture, and language diversity in teacher education. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 493–522.
  21. Cochran, K. F., DeRuiter, J. A., & King, R. A. (1993). Pedagogical content knowledge: An integrative model for teacher preparation. Journal of Teacher Education, 44(4), 263-272.
  22. 10.1177/0022487193044004004
  23. Clement, J. (1982). Students' preconceptions in introductory mechanics. American Journal of Physics, 50 (1), 66-71.
  24. Clandinin, D. J. (1985). Terms for inquiry into teacher thinking: The place of practical knowledge and the Elbaz case. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 6(2), 131-148.
  25. Clandinin, D. J. (1988). Understanding research on teaching as feminist research. Paper presented at the meeting of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education, Windsor, Ontario.
  26. Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (1995). Teachers’ professional knowledge landscapes. Teacher College Press.
  27. Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (1996). Teachers’ professional knowledge landscapes: Teacher stories - stories of teachers - school stories - stories of school. Educational Researcher, 25(3), 2-14.
  29. Clandinin, D., & Connelly, F. (2000). Narrative inquiry: Experience and story in qualitative research (1st Ed.).
  30. Jossey-Bass.
  31. Damianidou, E., & Phtiaka, H. (2018). Implementing inclusion in disabling settings: the role of teachers’ attitudes and practices. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 22(10), 1078-1092.
  32. 10.1080/13603116.2017.1415381
  33. diSessa, A.A. (1983). Phenomenology and the evolution of physics. In D. Gentner & A.L. Stevens (Eds.), Mental models (pp. 5-33). Erlbaum.
  34. Driver, R., Squires, A., Rushworth, P., & Wood-Robinson, V. (1994). Making sense of secondary science: Research into children's ideas. Rutledge.
  35. Elbaz, F. (1981). The teacher’s practical knowledge: Report of a case study. Curriculum Inquiry, 11(1), 43–71.
  36. Elbaz, F. (1983). Teacher thinking: A study of practical knowledge. Croom Helm.
  37. Florian, L., & Graham, A. (2014). Can an expanded interpretation of phronesis support teacher professional development for inclusion? Cambridge Journal of Education, 44(4), 465-478.
  38. García, E. E. (2005). Teaching and learning in two languages: Bilingualism and schooling in the United States.
  39. Teachers College Press.
  40. Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice (2nd Ed.). Teachers College Press.
  41. Geddis, A. N., Onslow, B., Beynon, C., & Oesch, J. (1993). Transforming content knowledge: Learning to teach about isotopes. Science Education, 77(6), 575–591.
  42. Geddis, A., & Wood, E. (1997). Transforming subject matter and managing dilemmas: A case study in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13(6), 611-626.
  43. Gess-Newsome, J. (1999). PCK: An introduction and orientation. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. Lederman (Eds.), Examining PCK: The construct and its implications for science education (pp. 3-20). Kluwer.
  44. Gess-Newsome, J. (2015). A model of teacher professional knowledge and skill including PCK: Results of the thinking from the PCK Summit. In A. Berry, P. Friedrichsen & J. Loughran (Eds.), Re-examining pedagogical content knowledge in science education (pp. 28–42). Routledge.
  45. Grossman, P. (1989). Learning to teach without teacher education. Teachers College Record, 91(2), 191-207.
  46. Grossman, P. L. (1990). The making of a teacher: Teacher knowledge and teacher education. Teachers College Press
  47. Gudmundsdottir, S. (1991). Ways of seeing are ways of knowing. The pedagogical content knowledge of an expert
  48. English teacher. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 23(5), 409-421.
  49. Halloun, A., & Hestenes D. (1985) Common-sense concepts about motion. American Journal of Physics, 53(1), 1056- 1065.
  50. Hashweh, M. Z. (1987). Effects of subject-matter knowledge in the teaching of biology and physics. Teaching and
  51. Teacher Education, 3(2), 109-120.
  52. Hashweh, M. Z. (2005). Teacher pedagogical constructions: a reconfiguration of pedagogical content knowledge.
  53. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and practice, 11(3), 273–292.
  54. Hong, L., & Scott, P. (2004). Groups of diverse problem solvers can outperform groups of high-ability problem solvers,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(46), 16385-89.
  55. 10.1073/pnas.0403723101
  56. Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., & Stigler, J. (2002). A knowledge base for the teaching profession: what would it look like, and how can we get one? Educational Researcher, 31(5), 3-15.
  57. Howard, T. C., & Aleman, G. R. (2008). Teacher capacity for diverse learners. In. M. Cochran-Smith, S. FeimanNemser, D. J. McIntyre, & K. E. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring questions in changing contexts (pp. 157-174). Routledge.
  58. Huanshu, Y. (2018). Preparing teachers for diversity: A literature review and implications from community-based teacher education. Higher Education Studies, 8 (1), 9-17.
  59. Kaljo, K. (2014). Exposing the brilliant facets of pedagogical content knowledge: a collective case study (Unpublished doctoral thesis). The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
  60. Kind, V. (2015). On the beauty of knowing then not knowing: Pinning down the elusive qualities of PCK. In A. Berry, P. Friedrichsen & J. Loughran (Eds.), Re-examining pedagogical content knowledge in science education (pp. 170-196). Routledge.
  61. Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Towards a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research
  62. Journal, 32(3), 465-491.
  63. Lampert, M. (1985). How do teachers manage to teach? Perspectives on problems in practice. Harvard Educational
  64. Review, 55(2), 178-94.
  65. Lee, O., & Fradd, S. H. (1998). Science for all, including students from non-English language backgrounds. Educational Researcher, 27(3), 12–21.
  66. Lee, O., & Luykx, A. (2007). Science education and student diversity: Race/ethnicity, language, culture, and socioeconomic status. In S. K. Abell & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of research on science education. Erlbaum.
  67. Lee, E., & Luft, J. A. (2008). Experienced secondary science teachers’ representation of pedagogical content knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 30(10), 1343-1363.
  68. Loreman, T., Lupart, J., & Andrews, J. (2015). Introduction: A thematic preview. In Andrews, J. & Lupart, J. (Eds.), Diversity education: Understanding and addressing student diversity. Nelson Canada.
  69. Loughran, J., Milroy, P. Berry, A. Gunstone, R. &Mulhall, P. (2001). Documenting science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through Pap-eRs. Research in Science Education, 31(2), 289-307.
  70. Loughran, J. J., Berry, A. K., & Mulhall, P. J. (2006). Understanding and developing science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. Sense.
  71. Lyons, N., & LaBoskey, V. K. (Eds.) (2002). Why narrative inquiry or exemplars for a scholarship of teaching? In N. Lyons & V. K. LaBoskey (Eds.), Narrative inquiry in practice: Advancing the knowledge of teaching (pp. 11-27). Teachers College Press.
  72. Magnusson, S., Krajacik, J., & Borko, H. (1999). Nature, sources, and development of PCK for science teaching. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Examining PCK: The construct and its implications for science education (pp. 95-120). Kluwer Academic Press.
  73. Marks, R. (1990). Pedagogical content knowledge: From a mathematical case to a modified conception. Journal of
  74. Teacher Education, 41(3), 3-11.
  75. Mavhunga, E. (2014). Improving PCK and CK in preservice teachers. In H. Venkat, M. Rollnick, M. Askew, & J.
  76. Loughran (Eds.). Exploring mathematics and science teachers’ knowledge: Windows into teacher thinking (pp. 31-48). Routledge.
  77. Mavhunga, E., & Rollnick, M. (2016). Teacher- or learner-entred? Science teacher beliefs related to topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge: A South African case study. Research in Science Education, 46(6), 831-855.
  78. Park, S., & Oliver, J. S. (2008). Revisiting the conceptualization of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): PCK as a conceptual tool to understand teachers as professionals. Research in Science Education, 38(3), 261284.
  79. Polkinghorne, D. (1995). Narrative configuration in qualitative analysis. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 8(1), 135-153.
  80. Sagner-Tapia, J. (2018). An analysis of alterity in teachers' inclusive pedagogical practices. International Journal of
  81. Inclusive Education, 22(4), 375-390.
  82. Saravia-Shore, M (2008). Diverse teaching strategies for diverse learners. In R. Cole (Ed.), Educating everybody’s child: Diverse teaching strategies for diverse learners (pp. 41-97). ASCD.
  83. Shapiro, B. (2015). Understanding and addressing diversity in elementary science. In J. Andrews & J. Lupart, (Eds.), Understanding and addressing student diversity in Canadian schools (pp. 362-392). Cengage Nelson.
  84. Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.
  85. Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22.
  86. Tamir, P. (1988). Subject matter and related pedagogical knowledge in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher
  87. Education, 4(2), 99-110.
  88. Van Driel, J. H., Verloop, N., & DeVos, W. (1998). Developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge.
  89. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(6), 673–695.<673::AID-TEA5>3.0.CO;2
  90. Vanthuyne, A., & Byrd Clark, J. (2015). Teaching for change and diversity. In L. Thomas & M. Hirschkorn, (Eds.), Change and progress in Canadian teacher education: Research on recent innovations in teacher preparation in Canada (pp. 525-550). Canadian Association for Teacher Education.
  91. Verloop, N., Van Driel, J. H., & Meijer, P. (2001). Teacher knowledge and the knowledge base of teaching.
  92. International Journal of Educational Research, 35(5), 441-461.
  93. Veal, W. R., & MaKinster, J. G. (1999). Pedagogical content knowledge taxonomies [Electronic version]. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 3(4).
Creative Commons License